DA maintenance 

Directional antenna maintenance is primarily an ongoing process based on experience and adequate written records.

Tower maintenance 

There are very few jobs in broadcasting where one can start at the top; but tower maintenance is the one where it is best to start at the top and work down.

Solid-state tower lighting 

For towers that require incandescent lighting, regular tower-light inspection and maintenance is a task that tower owners must undertake. The annoyances lie in changing a burned-out lamp, affording the cost of a tower climber, timing convenience of the failure.

Selecting a new transmitter 

Solid-state technology has taken over the major AM broadcast transmitter manufacturers, and up to 40kW of solid-state power is available in FM. When making the decision to buy a new transmitter, there are several factors to consider.

Top loading, part 2 of 2 

Part One described the events leading to the development of top loading of broadcast AM antennas. This part continues with details of the types of top loading and discusses the use of the FCC's Rules in planning a top-loaded antenna system.

Class C-0 FM implementation 

In November 2000 the Commission created a new FM channel classification to join Classes A, B, B1, C, C1, C2 and C3. Use of the new class - Class C-0 (C-Zero) - permits upgrades of existing stations and new allocations based on the reduced spacing protections, which will apply when Class C stations are converted to Class C-0.

Let's Automate! 

Part 1 of our Special Report.

Top loading, part 1 of 2 

Engineers charged with the job of designing a new AM transmitter facility nearly always try to plan for the tallest tower possible. This is not just an ego trip; it's because the taller the AM radiator, the higher the field strength developed in the listening area with a given power.

Impedance matching 

We have all been taught that the load impedance must match the generator impedance in the case of non-DC voltages in order to obtain the most efficient transfer of power. In DC work it seems that loads with an improper resistance fail to work because the supply voltage is too low, or else burn out because their resistance is too low for the applied voltage, and simple Ohm's law applies.

RF Combiners 

Transmitting several frequencies from a single broadband antenna system requires the use of a combining system, or combiner, composed of RF filters and interconnecting transmission line. Generally, a combiner can be categorized as branched (star point) or balanced (constant-impedance). These types may use band-reject (notch) or band-pass filters.

IBOC: A Look From Every Angle 

It's a cool Monday morning; the first in October, in fact. After opening your office, and after downing the requisite two cups of coffee, you turn on your computer and open them: The dreaded capital budget spreadsheets.

Field Report: Broadcast Electronics AM-1A 

When Northwestern College Radio acquired WMAD, one of the first priorities was to replace the transmitter. Mark Croom reviews the AM-1A.

More on IBOC Antennas 

The article titled "Transmission: Implementing IBOC" in the October 2001 issue of BE Radio is very informative, but one concept in it may need further clarification.

Computerized planning and station engineering 

In the early days of radio engineering, it was necessary to calculate every value used in determining coverage and antenna design manually. Slide rules were the norm, and many engineers carried one in a hip holster -- well, almost. My slide-rule case certainly had a belt slot in it.

Thoughts on FM 

I often wonder if Major Armstrong knew what he was giving to the world when he began developing frequency modulation as a public service.

Rules for Digital Auxiliary Services Proposed 

In an ever-evolving effort to smooth the transition from analog to digital technology, the Federal Communications Commission is proposing to revise its rules to allow broadcast auxiliary services (BAS) to convert to digital technology along with broadcast stations.

Tall AM towers 

Usually, bigger is better. But in the case of AM towers, taller is not always better. A very tall AM radiator is not always the best radiator. In fact,

Transmitters, towers and antennas at NAB2001 

Discussions with FM engineers unearthed concerns about radio's future when considered with reference to streaming, DAB/IBOC, RBDS, satellite radio, and

The licensing process 

Whoever said, the more things change, the more they remain the same, must have had the FCC in mind. More than 50 years ago, Form 301 was thin and did

The Transition To Digital 

Incrementally or all at once, the transition is coming. How digital is your facility?

Detuning unwanted reradiators 

Like mushrooms after a heavy rain, unwanted reradiators sometimes appear almost overnight in the near field of AM antennas.

Field Report: Audemat FM-MC3.2 with Goldenear 

At some point in an engineer's career, questions such as How does our signal compare to so-and-so? or, Have we increased multipath along the highway lately?

Mutual impedance 

Matters of impedance are deeply significant in radio engineering. In audio, with lower frequencies, the actual component values are generally considerably

Transmission - Transmitters 

Antenna basics 

The author Gertrude Stein once said a rose is a rose, is a rose is a rose. Maybe an antenna is an antenna, is an antenna also applies, but an AM antenna

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