The mystery of negative towers 

While negative towers are not as frequently used in directional antenna array designs, they can still be found in use. What exactly is a negative tower, and what does it do that is so different from a normal tower?

The details of EIA/TIA 222 Rev. G 

The new specification's table of contents lists 15 main topics or objectives, each of which may have as many as eight subsections.

The Doherty linear amplifier 

When first developed, the Doherty amplifier gained a reputation for difficulty in adjustment and consistent operation. Since then, it has proven to be a stable and reliable transmitter design.

Installing AM IBOC 

The basic installation of an AM IBOC transmitter is similar to that for an FM IBOC installation with varying exceptions required by the different system

FM IBOC site preparation 

What steps should you take when constructing a new facility for IBOC?

Maintaining directional antennas 

The directional antenna system is a unique balance of art and science. Keeping it in top operating condition will preserve the system's efficiency and likely keep it in compliance with the FCC.

Phasors and ATUs 

The phasor is not the frightening cabinet of horrors that some engineers consider it to be. While it may seem daunting, a basic understanding of its operation will make maintenance of the antenna system much easier.

Measuring Modulation 

The closer the correlation between the modulating signal and the instantaneous value of the modulated carrier wave the better the quality of the eventual reproduction of the audio signal.

Electronic feedback 

Most of the radio transmitters in use today depend on feedback, negative or positive, for their successful operation.

Antenna currents and field strength 

Sometimes we lose sight of the relationship between current in an antenna and the resulting field strength value.

Concerning combiners 

Until the advent of FM, combiners were rarely required. After FM was introduced, the need for a method of feeding two or more FM frequencies into a single

The IBOC FM waveform 

The IBOC system for FM as developed by Ibiquity is a fascinating engineering feat.

IBOC antennas 

Despite the hiatus in nighttime operation for AM IBOC, antenna research is continuing in an effort to comply with the FCC's existing requirements of two antennas for FM IBOC, and develop a system using one antenna that will satisfy the FCC's requirements.

Staying neutral 

Because of inductive and capacitive circuits, it is often easy for undesired and usually unwanted oscillations to be generated in an amplifier stage. Neutralization is important to keep these systems at maximum efficiency.

RF amplifier basics 

A radio transmitter is a collection of stages. How these stages function determines the operational capability of each transmitter.

Fixing signal problems 

When reception trouble is reported, it's not always easy to find the cause.

Environmental, ground system problems 

As the FCC continues to delete mandatory measurements and checks from the Part 73 rules, some unintentional traps are opened for the unwary engineer.

Building a better radiator 

As public rejection of tall towers has increased, radio engineers have been paying more and more attention to AM antenna design requirements in an effort to develop shorter AM antennas that are as efficient as their taller brethren.

Test your RF system 

Modern equipment is stable and reliable, but some things should be checked on a regular basis.

DA maintenance 

With the FCC's reduced logging requirements, there is no excuse for a directional array not to have adequately written maintenance logs.

Multitenant towers 

The use of somebody else's tower can be attractive, but before rushing into a contract with an existing tower owner, consider all the problems that can occur.

Diplexing AM transmitters 

When vertical real estate is at a premium, diplexing AM stations may offer an cost-efficient alternative.

Lightning protection 

with proper engineering precautions, towers can survive intense lightning attacks.

Grounding and signal problems 

Adequate grounding means different things to different engineers.

IBOC and combiners 

Some transmitter manufacturers have already announced the availability of FM IBOC transmitting equipment, and offered actual equipment at the NAB show. FM IBOC requires considerably more equipment than the AM version, and it is more expensive.

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