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Political Broadcasting 101
Whether you are in California or Maine, it's election season again. Here is a brief review of applicable laws and regulations governing access to time by political candidates.
- Right to Access
The political broadcast rules require stations to provide federal candidates reasonable access to their facilities. State and local candidates do not have the same right of access. Indeed, no station licensee is required to permit the use of its facilities by any legally qualified candidate for state or local public office. However, if a licensee permits any such candidate to use its facilities, it must afford equal opportunities to all other candidates for that office. And that candidate may say whatever he wants because the licensee cannot censor any of a candidate's broadcast material.
- Qualifying “Uses.”
Certain appearances by a candidate do not count as a use of broadcast facilities and do not trigger the equal opportunity requirement. For example, appearances in a bona fide newscast, news interview, news documentary (if the appearance of the candidate is incidental to the presentation of the subject of the documentary), and on-the-spot coverage of bona fide news events do not give rise to equal opportunity obligations.
However, if a candidate's appearance does not fall under any of those exceptions, then the appearance may be what the FCC calls a “use,” in which case the door would be opened to all other legally qualified candidates who may want equal time. Once the first use has occurred, a broadcaster must accommodate other legally qualified candidates who request time within a week after the first use.
- Record Keeping
Every licensee must keep and permit public inspection of a complete record of all requests for broadcast time made by or on behalf of a candidate for public office, together with an appropriate notation showing the disposition made by the licensee of such requests, and the charges made, if any, if the request is granted. Unlike other parts of the public inspection file, the licensee whose main studio is outside its community of license does not have to honor telephone requests for photocopies of the political file.
- Lowest Unit Charge
During the 45 days preceding the date of a primary or primary runoff election and during the 60 days preceding the date of a general or special election in which such person is a candidate, a broadcaster cannot charge a legally qualified candidate more than the lowest unit charge of the station for the same class and amount of time for the same period for any ad related to the candidate's campaign. Bonus spots provided to advertisers must be factored into the calculation of lowest unit rate.
- Special California Issues
In even a two- or three-candidate race, these rules can be troublesome. Consider California this year, where at last count, there were more than 130 announced candidates for governor. By taking one candidate's spots, stations will open the door to 129 potential equal time requests.
In California there is another perplexing twist: as a technical matter, the current governor who is the subject of the recall election is technically not himself a candidate as far as California is concerned. Does the governor then qualify as a candidate for FCC purposes? The Commission has taken the position in the past that a person who is subject to recall is a candidate under the FCC's rules if the candidates to replace him appear on the same ballot as the recall.
Martin is an attorney with Fletcher, Heald & Hildreth, PLC., Arlington, VA. E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Dec. 1 is the deadline for filing with the FCC the biennial ownership reports, and for the placement of annual EEO reports in the public file, for radio stations in the following sates: Alabama, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota and Vermont.
Dec. 1 also is the deadline for renewal applications for radio stations in Alabama and Georgia.
Prefiling renewal announcements must begin on Dec. 1 for radio stations in Arkansas, Louisiana and Mississippi.
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