In 1998, the IEEE adopted the standard defining one Gigabit (1Gb) Ethernet over fiber optic cabling. In June of 1999, the standard defining 1 Gigabit Ethernet, or 1000BaseT, over copper pairs was ratified.
Part One described the events leading to the development of top loading of broadcast AM antennas. This part continues with details of the types of top loading and discusses the use of the FCC's Rules in planning a top-loaded antenna system.
At this time of year it is customary to look back at the events of the past and look ahead to the possible future.
Since the Telecommunications act of 1996, groups all over the country started staking out dominant market shares. By 2000 times were good. Owners and managers were making money and servicing their debt load in a strong economy. What a difference in a year.
It's been a year to remember - or perhaps to forget. Wall Street witnessed figurative and real collapses, and radio has felt the ripples generated from that.
In November 2000 the Commission created a new FM channel classification to join Classes A, B, B1, C, C1, C2 and C3. Use of the new class - Class C-0 (C-Zero) - permits upgrades of existing stations and new allocations based on the reduced spacing protections, which will apply when Class C stations are converted to Class C-0.
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As part of Chairman Powell's efforts to reform the FCC, the Mass Media Bureau, which handles all radio and television matters, will be merged into the Cable Services Bureau, which handles all cable matters, to form a new Media Bureau.
Simple point-to-point audio paths have become complex networks joining multiple studio facilities and transmitter sites, sometimes spread over a large area.
As the economy continues its downturn, and radio revenue continues to decrease, station managers must use all their powers and all the tools at their disposal to increase the bottom line. Unfortunately, it now appears that the worst case is a reality, with even greater downside potential if future events cause greater disruption to the economy.
Last month I wrote about the role that traditional broadcasting played in relaying information when many newer technologies could not keep up with the events of September 11. Just days before that event, I was putting some thoughts together about another event that took place earlier that same month: the NAB Radio Show.
Engineers charged with the job of designing a new AM transmitter facility nearly always try to plan for the tallest tower possible. This is not just an ego trip; it's because the taller the AM radiator, the higher the field strength developed in the listening area with a given power.
A quality digital installation requires more than good equipment.
With all the hats contract engineers have to wear (and bear), it sometimes feels as if juggling is our primary occupation.
When radio technologists think of signal quality, the first things that come to mind are frequency response, noise and distortion.
When Northwestern College Radio acquired WMAD, one of the first priorities was to replace the transmitter. Mark Croom reviews the AM-1A.
We have all been taught that the load impedance must match the generator impedance in the case of non-DC voltages in order to obtain the most efficient transfer of power. In DC work it seems that loads with an improper resistance fail to work because the supply voltage is too low, or else burn out because their resistance is too low for the applied voltage, and simple Ohm's law applies.
The events of recent days have brought much attention to the broadcast media, as is often the case in periods of crisis. It is times like these when the true value of broadcasting shows through, and the routine, day-to-day priorities of the business fade in importance. The nation huddles to stay informed via news broadcasts, or to discuss issues on talk radio, and eventually to escape and return to normal with sports and entertainment programs.
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When a major historical event takes place, we often remember, and are usually asked repeatedly, “Where were you at that time, and what were you doing?” September 11 is one of those days.
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